Pre-Diabetes and Diabetes Glossary of Medical Terms
FAQs about prediabetes?

Chart Comparing Insulin Resistance and Types of Diabetes: Symptoms, Treatment, Prognosis

What is diabetes?

Nearly all forms of diabetes are metabolic diseases that affect insulin production and blood glucose (also called blood sugar) levels.  There is one exception — diabetes insipidus, which is a disorder that uses the term “diabetes” because it affects water balance in the body but is not a metabolic disease that involves insulin or the pancreas.

Different types of diabetes are caused for different reasons, and each has their own unique set of risk factors.  You can find out more about other types of diabetes, inclding, LADA, MODY, CRF, Bronze Diabetes, Type 1 Diabetes, on our main website, Islets of Hope, a Diabetes Information Portal.

What is Type 2 Diabetes?

Type 2 diabetes occurs when insulin-producing in your pancreas either do not make enough insulin, or, you no longer have normal sensitivity to the insulin produced by your pancreas (insulin resistance). When insulin resistance occurs,in early stages your body will make excessive amounts of insulin in order to try and maintain normal blood sugar levels.  If your pancreas wears out and stops producing enough insulin to maintain normal blood sugar, you may need to take insulin shots each day.

Type 2 diabetes is a disease, not a syndrome (insulin resistance syndrome aka Metabolic Syndrome X is a syndrome).  In order to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes you must meet all of certain diagnostic criteria.

How is Type 2 diabetes diagnosed?

Most doctors will order a Fasting Plasma Glucose test. This test involves drawing blood from a vein or finger stick in the morning before eating.  The results of the test may be conclusive on their own, however, if your doctor suspects you could have pre-diabetes, or the test was not conclusive based on other signs or symptoms you have, he/she may order a 2-Hour Glucose Tolerance Test.

Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes

Each case is different.  Your doctor may prescribed any of the following as part of an overall treatment plan for type 2 diabetes:

  • Changes in lifestyle including losing weight, starting an exercise program, quitting smoking, stress management.
  • Oral Medications
  • Insulin Shots
  • Byetta (an injected medication to help manage blood sugars)

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