Pre-Diabetes and Diabetes Glossary of Medical Terms

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Medical Tests


Somogyi Effect: (Rebound Hyperglycemia) The Somogyi Effect occurs after a rapid drop in blood glucose levels sometime during sleep. The body responds by releasing stored glucose (released from glycogen stores) from the muscles and liver in an attempt to elevate blood glucose levels. The body may overcompensate, releasing large amounts of glycogen which results in a “rebound” effect, causing hyperglycemia termed “Somogyi Effect.”

This may happen anytime during sleep, but hypoglycemia usually occurs around 3 a.m. The hypoglycemic (low blood glucose) episode is followed by an elevated is followed by an elevated blood glucose level towards morning. Going to bed without a snack or low blood-glucose, inadequate food eaten for exercise, and too much insulin contribute to this response.

Subcutaneous (SubQ): Under the skin, as in giving a subcutaneous injection by putting a fluid into the tissue under the skin with a needle and syringe.

Insulin syringe used to inject insulin to treat diabetes.
Insulin syringe used to inject insulin to treat diabetes

Syringe: A device used to deliver by injection, medication into a vein or under the skin into body fat or muscle tissue. A syringe is used to inject insulin to treat diabetes.

A syringe has a barrel with markings (to hold the insulin) and a needle tip. Syringes come in a variety of sizes (cc) and syringe needles come in different thicknesses (gauge) and different needle lengths.

The higher the number of the gauge (g) on a syringe, the thinner the needle is. For example, a 28 g is thicker than 30 g needle.